The base of metal ceramic prosthesis is made of metal and coated with porcelain of the colour of teeth. Such veneers have usually been used for many years. As compared with metal-free ceramic prostheses, they are more durable and characterised by longer service. In other words, metal ceramic prostheses do not look so natural, because metal does not transmit light (as an actual tooth does), furthermore, a black line is visible by the gums. This technique is most suitable for prosthesis of less visible teeth, for example, molars.
Metal-free ceramic veneer is a new step to aesthetics. Veneers are made of porcelain. According to its physical properties, ceramic is close to natural tooth properties. It is transparent to light (as a natural tooth), therefore, it looks very natural.
Advantages of dental prosthesis with metal-free ceramic veneers:
- excellent aesthetics and transparency (transparency to light makes a tooth look natural);
- veneers are made of biologically coordinated, non-allergic material;
- durability and resistance to wearing;
- veneers tend to cling well to dental tissues;
- invisible metal prosthesis edge;
- gums look natural (there is no blue shade which is usual when wearing metal ceramic prosthesis);
- there is no specific taste of metal in the mouth.
Each person wants for his prosthetic teeth to look natural. Zirconium ceramics crowns used for dental prosthesis look completely natural. Zirconium ceramics have much more advantages.
Zirconium replaced the previously widely used metal prosthesis constructions, gold and silver crowns. In the recent years, the zirconium crowns became especially popular due to their unique properties:
- durability – zirconium ceramic crowns and dental bridges are especially solid as compared with other types;
- long service – zirconium is resistant to attrition, therefore, can be used for many years;
- aesthetics – zirconium dental crowns are conductive to light, therefore, look completely natural as human teeth;
- metal-free construction – when producing zirconium dental crowns or bridges, no metal constructions are used. It is an excellent solution for persons who are allergic to metal.
Dental implants function as dental roots. After the performance of dental implantation, the process of prosthesis starts after 3-4 months. Prosthetic support is placed on implant and can be:
- metallic (for prosthesis of the group of molars);
- zirconium oxide aesthetic support (for prosthesis of group of front teeth).
It depends on which prosthesis method is selected by the patient: prosthetics of metal ceramics or prosthesis with metal-free ceramics. Zirconium oxide support is more advantageous – it fits to the oral tissues better and looks nicer.
Partial plates cling to the gums and hold on to the remaining teeth (usually by the help of hooks) and are produced when bridge prosthesis is not suitable, for example, in case of terminal defects, periodontologically unreliable teeth or implantation is not applied.
Full plates restore the missing teeth both on the maxilla and mandible when there is not a single tooth and they perfectly cling to the alveolic bone and gums. The patient can chew, smile, speak, the facial profile looks much nicer than without the gums.
The major disadvantage of plates - they do not stop the resorption of alveolic bone. The reason for this is that the bone suffers constant load when chewing with own teeth, whereas in case of loss of teeth, the bone suffers atrophy.
If the patient is not satisfied that his removable prosthesis (plate) is not stable in the mouth when moving, eating or speaking, implants can be used for stabilisation of the removable prosthesis. Such stabilised removable prosthesis is fitted inside the mouth more firmly, thus, the patient feels almost like with his own teeth and can easily eat, speak and smile without having a fear that a prosthesis will fall out.
In order to restore several missing teeth or the entire toothless maxilla, it is not necessary to screw the same number of implants. In case a group of teeth is missing, several implants are implanted and a bridge prosthesis is produced. 4-8 implants may be sufficient for prosthesis of the entire toothless maxilla.
Arch supporting dental prostheses are removable dental prostheses produced by covering the metal carcass with plastic gums and teeth. The prosthesis is fitted to the supporting teeth with hooks or special locking system. In this way, the patient is provided with more comfort when chewing food, when biting - the prosthesis will remain stable and will not move. Furthermore, such prostheses will have less contact with oral mucous membrane and will not cause discomfort when speaking.